The Holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG) and pulse-dye laser are used for fragmentation of urinary calculi through miniaturized rigid and flexible endoscopes. The Ho:YAG laser is effective at fragmenting all stones types. However, it can also cut a stone basket or the wall of a ureter if contact occurs. In contrast, the pulse-dye laser is essentially free of thermal risk.
Holmium:YAG laser utilizes a wavelength in the infrared zone (2100 microns). This laser creates a vapor "tunnel" in the irrigating fluid. The laser works on the surface of the stone by vaporizing water and organic matter in the stone resulting in destruction in the urinary calculus.
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