Thiamine: Is also known as Vitamin B1. This vitamin is found in many foods. High quantities of thiamine are found in wheat germ and dry yeast.
Tomograms: A type of X-ray where both the X-ray projector and film are revolving around the patient. This technique is able to focus better on the kidney and permit better visualization even in difficult cases. Plain tomograms without contrast will help demonstrate even relatively small stones not visible with other methods.
Tomography: Body section X-rays; a special technique to show in detail images of structures lying in a plane of tissue.
Tomography (computed): The gathering of anatomical information from a cross-sectional plane of the body.
Transurethral Resection: (Trans-meaning through, across, beyond; Transurethral performed through the urethra; Resection - excision of a considerable portion of an organ) - resection of the prostate is performed by moving a cutting loop electrode with electrosurgical current applied, through the prostate tissue, to cut away chips of tissue and provide coagulation for hemostats.
Trigonum (vesicae): Trigone.
Triple Phosphate: Stands for magnesium, ammonium phosphate and calcium phosphate. Another name for struvite stones. The "triple" stands for the three ingredients of calcium, magnesium and ammonium that are found in these stones.
Trocar: An instrument for withdrawing fluid from a cavity.
Ultrasound: High frequency sound waves. Usually used like sonar for diagnosis. Has the advantage of safety. When used as a therapeutic probe, ultrasound can drill through most stones and pulverize them.
Ureter: The name of the muscular tube that empties the kidney and carries urine down to the urinary bladder. It begins at the renal pelvis, empties into the bladder at the trigone, terminating in the ureteral orifice. Normally it gently squeezes the urine downwards much like the intestines slowly pass food along from the stomach to the rectum.
Ureteral: Pertaining to the ureter.
Ureteral Stent: tubular indwelling devices to provide support and maintain patency of the ureter.
Ureteral Orifice: The opening of the ureter into the bladder. Usually a very small and narrow opening, which must be carefully negotiated in order to enter the ureter with a scope.
Ureteral Pelvic Junction Obstruction (UPJO): a narrowing of the proximal portion of the ureter nearest to the kidney.
Ureterectomy: Excision of a segment or all of a ureter.
Ureterocele: herniation of the ureter into the bladder; usually caused by ureteral opening being too small and the mucosa bulging into the bladder forming a "Cobra Head" appearance when looked at cystoscopically or by x-ray.
Ureterography: Radiography of the ureter after the injection of contrast media.
Ureterolith: A calculus in the ureter.
Ureterolithiasis: The formation or presence of a calculus or calculi in one or both ureters.
Ureterolithotomy: Surgical removal of a stone lodged in a ureter.
Ureteropelvic Junction (UPJ): 1. The anatomical location where the inside of the kidney connects to the ureter. It's a common place for strictures and blockages. The UPJ is one of the three narrowest areas of the ureter. Stones will often become trapped with this narrow area (UPJ) causing tremendous colic and pain. 2. Where the renal pelvis joins the ureter.
Ureteroscope: A specially made telescope designed to be passed through the urinary bladder into the ureter. The longer, flexible versions can reach all the way up to the kidney.
Ureteroscopy (URS): 1. A scope, the diameter of which is adapted to the lumen of the ureter, is inserted within the ureter up to the stone under visual and radiographic control. A port within the URS scope allows for disintegration and grasping of stone. 2. Endourology technique using lenses to view the interior of the ureter.
Ureterovesical Junction (UVJ): The anatomical location where the ureter joins with the urinary bladder. The entry is at an angle so that urine will not return up to the kidney during voiding when the bladder pressure is high. This is the narrowest part of the ureter and where many stones will get stuck.
Ureters: pleural of ureter; two thin tubes that carry urine downward from the kidneys to the bladder.
Urethra: The thin tube that allows passage of urine from the bladder to the outside.
Urethroscopy: viewing the urethra through a telescope and sheath.
Uric Acid: The final chemical endpoint in human purine (protein) metabolism. Most of it is excreted in the urine. Uric acid can form stones, make the urine more acidic and increase calcium stone formation.
Urinalysis: An examination of the urine. Usually best done with a chemical dipstick and a microscope.
Urinary tract: organ system involved in the formation, collection and elimination of urine: kidney, ureter, bladder and urethra.
Urine: The liquid excreted by the kidneys. Normally it has a clear amber color. Urine does not normally contain sugar, albumin, pus, blood, bacteria, acetone, casts or crystals.
Urine (residual): Remaining in the bladder.
Urogenital Tract: The urinary and genital organs (kidney, ureter, bladder, prostate, penis, urethra, etc.).
Urography: Roentgenography of any part of the urinary tract.
Urography (antegrade): Examination of the urinary tract utilizing percutaneous injection of a contrast agent with a need or catheter into the renal calices or pelvis.
Urography (excretory): Examination of the kidneys, ureters, and/or bladder by means of a contract agent administered by injection into a vein.
Urography (cystoscopic): Retrograde.
Urography (retrograde): X-ray examination of the urinary tract by means of contrast fluid injected directly into the bladder.
Urolithiasis: 1. The disease process in which a stone is formed anywhere in the urinary system. While this usually refers to kidney stones, the term includes bladder stones as well. 2. Calculus present within the urinary tract.
Urolithic: Relating to urinary calculi.
Urologist: A doctor who specializes in diseases of the urinary tract and the male reproductive system.
Urology: The medical specialty field that primarily deals with surgical problems affecting the kidneys, urinary bladder and male genitalia. Urology is a surgical specialty.
Uropathy: Any disorder involving the urinary tract.
Urosepsis: 1. A serious infection where the source of the bacteria was originally from the urinary tract. 2. Bacterial septic poisoning from retained and absorbed urinary substances, may be seen with extravasation of urine into the body tissue, secondary to urinary tract tear.
UTI: Urinary Tract Infection. Usually refers to a bladder infection