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The removal of a body part or the destruction of its' function, as by a surgical procedure, morbid process, or noxious substance.

Abnormality: 1. The state of quality of being abnormal. 2. An anomaly, deformity, or malformation.

Abscess: 1. A circumscribed collection of pus appearing in acute or chronic, localized infection, and associated with tissue destruction, and frequently, swelling. 2. A cavity formed by liquefaction necrosis within solid tissue.

Absorption: The passage of substances through body surfaces into tissues or body fluids. e.g. water is absorbed in the colon.

Absorptive hypercalcuria: The intestines absorb excess calcium.

Absorptive hyperoxaluria: The intestines absorb excess oxalate.

Acetaminophen: Tylenol

Acetazolamide: The heterocyclic sulfonamide, which inhibits the action of carbonic anhydrase in the kidney, causing an increase in the urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and bicarbonate, reduced excretion of ammonium, a rise in the pH of the urine, and a fall in the pH of the blood; used in respiratory acidosis for diuresis and control of fluid retention, in glaucoma to reduce intraocular pressure, and in epilepsy.

Acid: 1. A compound yielding hydrogen ion in water. 2. In popular language, any chemical compound that has a sour taste (given by the hydrogen ion).

Acidic: Pertaining to or containing acid.

Acidosis (renal tubular): A clinical syndrome characterized by the ability to excrete acid urine.

Acucise: a ureteral cutting balloon.

Adenocarcinoma: Glandular cancer.

Adenocarcinoma (renal): Frequently of large size before the symptoms of blood in urine due to invasion of the renal vein, flank pain, a palpable mass, or distant metastasis following invasion. The tumors commonly have a yellow cut surface and appear well circumscribed, although showing microscopic infiltration of adjacent tissue.

Adenoma: An ordinarily benign neoplasm or dissolution of glandular tissue in which the tumor cells form glands or glandlike structures in the stroma.

Adrenal: Near or upon the kidney.

Adrenalectomy: Removal of one or both adrenal glands.

AGT or Alanine Glyoxalate Aminotransferase: An enzyme that is produced in the peroxisome, a component of the liver cell. Primary Hyperoxaluria Type I (PHI). Patients lack sufficient quantities of this enzyme to counteract oxalate production.

Alkaline or Alkali: Another name for base or antacid, the opposite of acidic.

Allopurinol: Inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, used in the treatment of gout.

Amino Acid: One of the building blocks of protein. Formed by the combination of a carbohydrate (sugar) and a nitrogen compound.

Amoxicillin: A semisynthetic penicillin antibiotic with an antimicrobial spectrum similar to that of ampicillin.

Ampicillin: Has a broader spectrum of antimicrobial action than penicillin G, inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Analgesia: A condition in which nociceptive stimuli are perceived but are not interpreted as pain; usually accompanied by sedation without loss of consciousness.

Analgesia (spinal): Sensory denervation produced by injection of local anesthetic into the subarachnoid space.

Anaphylaxis: A severe allergic reaction in which the breathing tube or airway can swell and shut off the air supply ultimately cause death if not treated rapidly. Epinephrine (adrenaline) is the treatment of choice.

Anemia: Condition in which the amount of hemoglobin and number of red blood cells are less than normal. Manifested by pale skin, shortness of breathe, heart palpitations and lethargy.

Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of sensation.

Anesthesia (epidural): Injection of local anesthetic into the peridural space.

Anesthesia (general): Loss of ability to perceive pain associated with a loss of consciousness. Differs from local in that consciousness is not retained.

Anesthesia (spinal): Sensory denervation produced by injection of local anesthetic solution into the spinal subarachnoid space.

Anesthesia (topical): Surface analgesia. Superficial loss of sensation in mucous membranes or skin.

Anesthesiologist: A physician who specializes in the administration of anesthesia.

Antacid: 1. Neutralizing an acid. 2. Any agent that reduces or neutralizes acidity, as of the gastric juice or any other secretion.

Antegrade: refers to the direction that is forward and/or the natural direction that fluid and the anatomy move. An example would be inserting something from the top or beginning (kidney) as opposed to inserting it from the bottom or end (bladder, urethra). (Retrograde)

Anterior: refers to the area within the kidney that is being accessed. Using the pelvis of the kidney as the center, anterior refers to that portion which is directed toward the chest wall.

Aorta: Large artery of elastic type which is the main trunk of the systemic arterial system.

Atelectasis: Collapsed or airless state of the lung, often due to obstruction of bronchus serving the affected area.

Autosomal Polycystic kidney disease: An inherited disorder resulting in multiple cysts of the kidney and other organs.

Autosomal Recessive: Also known as recessive inheritance. A generic inheritance governed by a paired set of genes. In the case of autosomal recessive inheritance, the person must have a pair of recessive genes in order to show the genetic characteristic. If the person receives only one recessive gene, he is known as a carrier of the gene. Hyperoxaluria is an autosomal recessive condition.


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The presence of viable bacteria in the circulating blood.

Bacteriuria: The presence of bacteria in the urine.

Balloon Dilator: An inflatable device designed to gently stretch or dilate mall tubular tracts. When the injected liquid is contrast or dye, the process can be viewed by X-ray. Most often used to pen the lower ureter for instrument passage, treat scarred areas of the ureter or prepare a passageway for percutaneous procedures directly on the kidney.

Base: An acid neutralizing substance such as an antacid (See Bicarbonate, Citrate).

Benign: When used in a medical context, benign means non-cancerous.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia: A nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate.

Bicarbonate: A natural form of antacid or base that is normally excreted by the pancreas to neutralize the stomach acid as your food laves the stomach and enters the intestines. Bicarbonate is dissolved in the blood and converted to citrate by the kidneys. Common baking soda is chemically sodium bicarbonate.

Biopsy: 1. The process of removing tissue from living patients for diagnostic examination. 2. The study of a small piece of living tissue.

Biopsy (endoscopic): Obtained by instruments passed through an endoscopic or obtained by a needle introduced under endoscopic guidance.

Biopsy (excision): Excision of tissue/entire lesion for gross and microscopic examination.

Biopsy (needle): Aspiration through an appropriate needle.

Biopsy (open): Surgical incision or excision of the region.

Bladder: a balloon-like organ (musculomembranous elastic bag) that serves as a container or reservoir for storing urine.

Bleeding: Losing blood as a result of rupture or severance of blood vessels.

Blood: 1. The means which oxygen and nutritive materials are transported to the tissues. 2. The means which carbon dioxide and various metabolic products are removed for excretion.

Board Certified: Formal acknowledgement by a medical or surgical specialty board that the practitioner has met all requirements for specialization set by that board and has passed one or more rigorous examinations in that field. While not a guarantee of competence, it suggests a high level of knowledge in one particular specialty.

Brushite calculi: calcium phosphate stones

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