Kidney Stone

Clinical Presentation:
Large stones may or may not present with flank pain. These stone may be struvite or infectious stones, and may present with infection.

Based on the location of this stone, an IVP (a), unenhanced helical CT Scan (b) or renal ultrasound will likely demonstrate this stone.

Staghorn calculus. Plain abdominal film (a) demonstrating a large radiopaque renal stone in the right kidney (yellow arrowhead). Unenchanced CT scan (b) from a different patient shows the staghorn calculus (yellow arrowheads).


Treatment options:
The stones are relatively large and may even be larger (i.e., staghorn calculus). Although ESWL can be performed, this usually requires multiple procedures to make the patient stone free. PCNL, although minimally invasive, can often render the patient stone free after a single procedure.

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