Types of Stones


The major factor in urolithiasis in children and adults is the production of insoluble calcium salts of oxalic acid. Hypercalciuria is the most common metabolic disorder associated with calcium oxalate stones, occurring in 30-60% of patients. Hypercalciuria is associated with a variety of metabolic disorders, including intestinal hyperabsorption (absorptive hypercalciuria), impaired renal calcium reabsorption (renal hypercalciuria) and increased skeletal demineralization (resorptive hypercalciuria). The urinary and blood chemistries that characterize these differing groups are summarized in the Table below (click table to enlarge).

Suggested readings
Rumi LA, Pearle MS, Pak CYC. Medical therapy: Calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Urol Clin North Am 1997, 24:1:117-133.


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