Types of Stones

Calcium Stones

Calcium containing stones are the most common types of stones formed within the urinary tract. They are most commonly composed of a mixture of calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate. The etiology of calcium stone disease is diverse. In 15% of the patients, the condition is secondary to a known underlying disorder, the most common being primary hyperparathyroidism. Primary hyperparathyroidism accounts between 5% and 10% of the calcium stone forming population. Less commonly, in hyperoxaluria, hereditary hyperoxaluria, renal tubular acidosis, Cushing's syndrome, steroid treatment, Vitamin D intoxication, immobilization and medullary sponge kidney disease may be present. In the majority of patients, however, none of these disease processes are present and the stone disease is referred to as idiopathic or primary.

The majority of patients with calcium stone disease will demonstrate hypercalcuria (high calcium in the urine) which may be subdivided into one of three categories. These include absorptive hypercalcuria, renal hypercalcuria or resorptive hypercalcuria. Hypercalcuria can exist with or without hypercalcemia (high calcium in the blood). A description of hypercalcuria is explained here.


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