Types of Stones
containing stones are the most common types of stones formed within
the urinary tract. They are most commonly composed of a mixture
of calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate. The etiology of calcium
stone disease is diverse. In 15% of the patients, the condition
is secondary to a known underlying disorder, the most common being
primary hyperparathyroidism. Primary hyperparathyroidism accounts
between 5% and 10% of the calcium stone forming population. Less
commonly, in hyperoxaluria, hereditary hyperoxaluria, renal tubular
acidosis, Cushing's syndrome, steroid treatment, Vitamin D intoxication,
immobilization and medullary sponge kidney disease may be present.
In the majority of patients, however, none of these disease processes
are present and the stone disease is referred to as idiopathic or
majority of patients with calcium stone disease will demonstrate
hypercalcuria (high calcium in the urine) which may be subdivided
into one of three categories. These include absorptive hypercalcuria,
renal hypercalcuria or resorptive hypercalcuria. Hypercalcuria can
exist with or without hypercalcemia (high calcium in the blood).
A description of hypercalcuria is explained here.